DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20201598

Effectiveness of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as immunotherapeutic agent for cutaneous viral warts

Anupama Devi Wahengbam, Jeyakumari Jeevan, Sowmya Dogiparthi

Abstract


Immunotherapy for management of cutaneous wart with measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR) is a promising new modality of management. Evaluation of the same has been done by various studies over the years reporting its effectiveness. A literature search was done using PubMed and google scholar. This short narrative review documents the response rates in various clinical studies done till 2019 which have reported the efficacy of MMR vaccine as an immunotherapeutic agent which ranged from 26-84% graded as complete response which is complete clearance of the treated warts. These studies were performed for evaluating MMR vaccine as single agent or done in comparison with other therapeutic agents. The broad range of responses points to a need of doing further clinical studies which will substantiate the effectiveness of MMR vaccine in the treatment of cutaneous warts.


Keywords


Cutaneous warts, Verruca, MMR vaccine, Immunotherapy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bernard HU, Burk RD, Chen Z. Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxanomic amendments. Virology. 2010;401:70-9.

Hassan I, Bhat T, Altaf H, Sameem F, Masood Q. Role of oral zinc sulphate in warts-a placebo controlled, single-blinded study. Our Dermatol Online. 2013;4(1):24-275.

Naseem R, Aamir S. The efficacy of intralesional measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) antigen in treatment of common warts. Pak J Med Health Sci. 2013;7:1130-3.

Mohamed EK, Shaaban D, Aboeldahab S. Immunotherapy of viral warts. myth and reality. 2015;35 (1):113.

Gurairi AFT, Waiz AM, Sharquie KE. Oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts: randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146(3):42331.

Maronn M, Salm C, Lyon V, Galbraith S. One-year experience with candida antigen immunotherapy for warts and molluscum. Pediatr Dermatol. 2008;25:189-92.

Bacelieri R, Johnson SM. Cutaneous warts: An evidence-based approach to therapy. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72:647-52.

Kim KH, Horn TD, Pharis J, Kincannon J, Jones R, Bryan OK, et al. Phase 1 clinical trial of intralesional injection of candida antigen for the treatment of warts. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146:1431-3.

Garza MFZ, Crespo RE, Pradilla TM, Peiro AP, Cruz BS, Ruiz HME, et al. Intralesional Candida antigen immunotherapy for the treatment of recalcitrant and multiple warts in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015;32:797-801.

Thappa DM, Chiramel MJ. Evolving role of immunotherapy in the treatment of refractory warts. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7(5):364-70.

Chandrashekar L. Intralesional immunotherapy for the management of warts. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77:261-3.

Nofal A, Nofal E. Intralesional immunotherapy of common warts: Successful treatment with mumps, measles and rubella vaccine. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:1166‑70.

Mohamad NS, Badran F, Yakout E. Evaluation of the efficacy of a combination - Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in the treatment of plantar warts. Our Dermatol Online. 2013;4:463-7.

Na CH, Choi H, Song SH, Kim MS, Shin BS. Two years’ experience of using the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as intralesional immunotherapy for warts. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2014;39:583-9.

Zamanian A, Mobasher P, Jazi GA. Efficacy of intralesional injection of mumps-measles-rubella vaccine in patients with wart. Adv Biomed Res. 2014;3:107.

Nofal A, Nofal E, Yosef A, Nofal H. Treatment of recalcitrant warts with intralesional measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: a promising approach. Int J Dermatol. 2015:54(6):667-71.

Shaheen MA, Salem SA, Fouad DA, Fatah EAA. Intralesional tuberculin (PPD) versus measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in treatment of multiple warts: A comparative clinical and immunological study. Dermatol Ther. 2015;28:194- 200.

Raju J, Swamy AV, Swamy NBL, Raghavendra KR. Intralesional measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine - An effective therapeutic tool in the treatment of wart. J Evid Based Med Healthc. 2015;2:8548-51.

Shah AN, Patel D, Ravishankar V. Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as an intralesional immunotherapy in treatment of warts. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016;4(2):472-6.

Saveta S, Naina D, Devraj D. A prospective randomized open label comparative study of intralesional measles, mumps & rubella vaccine versus 100% trichloroacetic acid application in the treatment of common warts. Inte J of research in medical sci. 2016;4(5):1529-33.

Saini P, Mittal A, Gupta LK, Khare AK, Mehta S. Intralesional mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine in the treatment of cutanelous warts. Indian J Dermatol Veneteol Leprol. 2016;82:343-5.

Dhope A, Madke B, Singh AL. Effect of measles mumps rubella vaccine in treatment of common warts. Indian J of Drugs in Dermatology. 2017;3(1):14.

Agarwal S, Yadav PK, Verma AS, Kaur H. Safety and efficacy of intralesional MMR vaccine along with oral zinc in cutaneous warts. Medpulse Inte J. 2017;4(2):231-5.

Vanarase MU. Comparison of cryotherapy versus intralesional measles, mumps, rubella vaccine versus their combination therapy in Indian patients with cutaneous warts: a single prospective observational study. Int J Res Dermatol. 2019;5(4):715-21.

Chauhan PS, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS, Rawat R, Sharma V. The efficacy and safety of intralesional immunotherapy with measles, mumps, rubella virus vaccine for the treatment of common warts in adults. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2019;10:19-26.