DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20200207

A clinical and epidemiological study of hyperpigmentary disorder of face

Dayanand Raikar, Mohammed Waseem Javed, Anant Arunrao Takalkar

Abstract


Background: Facial pigmentary disorders are a group of heterogenous entities, sharing a common clinical feature of altered pigmentation of the face and thus easily visible cosmetic disfigurement. Although the increased melanin provides protection from harmful effects of UV radiation, including photodamage and skin cancers, it also makes darkly pigmented skin more vulnerable to post-inflammatory dyspigmentation. The importance of these disorders is growing, as they form the major percentage of dermatology consultations. The objective of the study was to assess the clinical profile of patients with facial hyperpigmentation.

Methods: The present cross-sectional hospital based observational study was conducted at Dermatology Department of during the period of June 2017 to December 2017 including patients with diagnosis of facial hyperpigmentation. Data analysed with SPSS 24 version.

Results: 29% were from 21 to 30 years age group followed by 25% from 31 to 40 years age group. Mean age of the study population was 28.4±11.8 years. 76% were female patients. Commonly observed facial hyperpigmentation type was melasma in our study i.e. 46%. It is followed by post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in 16% and ephilides in 8%. Rehl's melanosis and drug induced melanosis was seen in 7% each of the patients. Ephilides, Rehl's melanosis and drug induced was seen in 7% each of the patients. Family history of pigmentaory disorder was found in melasma, PIH and ephilides in our study.

Conclusions: Commonly reported age group was 20-40 with female preponderance. Commonly observed facial hyperpigmentation type was melasma (46%), PIH (16%) and ephilides (8%).


Keywords


Face, Hyperpigmentation, Melanosis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Pichardo R, Vallejos Q, Feldman SR, Schulz MR, Verma A, Quandt SA, et al. The prevalence of melasma and its association with quality of life in adult male Latino migrant workers. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48:22‑6.

Sharma VK, Sahni K, Wadhwani AR. Photodermatoses in pigmented skin. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2013;12:65-77.

Taylor SC. Skin of color: biology, structure, function, and implications for dermatologic disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46(2):41-62.

Seiji M, Fitzpatrick TB, Simpson RT, Birbeck MS. Chemical composition and terminology of specialized organelles (melanosomes and melanin granules) in mammalian melanocytes. Nature. 1963;197:1082-4.

Iozumi K, Hoganson GE, Pennella R, Everett MA, Fuller BB. Role of tyrosinase as the determinant of pigmentation in cultured human melanocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;100:806-11.

Ranu H, Thng S, Goh BK, Burger A, Goh CL. Periorbital hyperpigmentation in Asians: an epidemiologic study and a proposed classification. Dermatol Surg. 2011;37:1297-303.

Hassan I, Aleem S, Bhat YJ, Anwar P. A clinico-epidemiological study of facial melanosis. Pigment Int 2015;2:34-40.

Achar A, Rathi SK. Melasma: A clinico‑epidemiological study of 312 cases. Indian J Dermatol. 2011;56:380‑2.

Goh CL, Dlova CN. A retrospective study on the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of melasma in a tertiary dermatological referral centre in Singapore. Singapore Med J. 1999;40:455‑8.

Katsambas AD, Stratigos AJ, Lotti TM. Melasma. In: Katsambas AD, Lotti TM, editors. European Handbook of Dermatological Treatments. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer; 2003: 336‑341.

Sanchez NP, Pathak MA, Sato S, Fitzpatrick TB, Sanchez JL, Mihm MC Jr. Melasma: A clinical, light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immune-fluorescence study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981;4:698‑710.

Grimes PE. Melasma: Etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1453‑7.

Taylor S, Grimes P, Lim J, Im S, Lui H. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. J Cutan Med Surg. 2009;13:183‑91.

Ranu H, Thng S, Goh BK, Burger A, Goh CL. Periorbital hyperpigmentation in Asians: An epidemiologic study and a proposed classification. Dermatol Surg. 2011;37:1297‑303.

Sheth PB, Shah HA, Dave JN. Periorbital hyperpigmentation: A study of its prevalence, common causative factors and its association with personal habits and other disorders. Indian J Dermatol. 2014;59:151‑7.