DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20221198

A study on vaginal discharge in females attending sexually transmitted diseases outpatient department

V. Anandan, A. Kayalvizhi, C. Vijayabhaskar, R. M. Sobimeena

Abstract


Background: Vaginal discharge is the most common complaint among sexually active women attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. It can be either physiological or pathological. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires etiological diagnosis. The present study was carried out to determine the magnitude, epidemiological correlates and etiologies of vaginal discharge.

Methods: A total of 100 sexually active women in the age group of 20-50 years irrespective of marital status presenting with vaginal discharge were recruited in the study. Women during menstruation, pregnant women, post-menopausal women, women who had taken antibiotics or vaginal medication in the past 2 weeks were excluded. A detailed clinical history, thorough examination, appropriate bedside tests and cultures were done for all cases.

Results: Out of 100 women, 11% had physiological and 89% had pathological discharge. Among pathological vaginal discharge, bacterial vaginosis is the common cause (38%) followed by Vulvovaginal candidiasis (20%), Trichomoniasis (8%) and cervicitis (10%). Mixed infections were found in 13% with bacterial Vaginosis and Vulvovaginal candidiasis being higher. The 4% were HIV serology positive.

Conclusions: The results of the study were comparable with other similar studies. It emphasizes the fact that clinicians should be aware of emerging epidemiological patterns, different presentations of vaginal discharge, recent advances in investigation and their management.


Keywords


Vaginal discharge, Bacterial vaginosis, Vulvovaginal candidiasis, Wet mount, KOH mount, Sabourad dextrose agar

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kataria U, Siwach S, Chhillar D. Study of vaginal discharge among sexually active females in age group of 20-45 years: A hospital-based study in B.P.S Government Medical College for Women, Khanpur Kalan, District Sonipat, Haryana, India. IAIM. 2015;2(4):1-4.

Patel V, Pednekar S, Weiss H, Rodrigues M, Barros P, Nayak B et al. Why do women complain of vaginal discharge? A population survey of infectious and psychosocial risk factors in a South Asian community. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34(4):853-62.

Sivaranjini R, Jaisankar TJ, Thappa DM, Kumari R, Chandrasekhar L, Malathi M et al. Spectrum of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. Trop Parasitol. 2013;3:135-9.

Rahman M, Alam A, Khairun N, Aanowar H, Shamsun N, Dilip D et al. Etiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;1244-6.

Mohapatra S, Panda P, Parida B. Genital tract infection of women in Southern Orissa with special reference to pelvic inflammatory disease. Indian J Sex Transm Dis. 2013;34(1):64-6.

Chauhan V, Maitri S, Sejal T, Sangita VP, Yogesh M. Sexually transmitted infections in women: A correlation of clinical and laboratory diagnosis in cases of vaginal discharge syndrome. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2014;5(1):S1-5.

Abdullah YM, Chowdhury M, Shahidul IKM, Eva EO, Sharif AR, Rahman MK et al. Common microbial etiology of abnormal vaginal discharge among sexually active women in Dhaka, Bangladesh. South East Asia J Public Health. 2011;1:35-9.

Puri KJ, Madan A, Bajaj K. Incidence of various causes of vaginal discharge among sexually active females in age group 20-40 years. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2003;69(2):122-5.

Fonck K, Kidula N, Jaoko W, Estambale B, Claeys P, Ndinya-Achola J et al. Validity of the vaginal discharge algorithm among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(1):33-8.

Fox KK, Behets FM. Vaginal discharge. How to pinpoint the cause. Postgrad Med. 1995;98(3):87-90.

Ries AJ. Treatment of vaginal infections: candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1997;NS37(5):563-9.

Mahadani JW, Dekate RR, Shrikhande AV. Cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1998;41(4):403-11.

Nessa K, Waris SA, Alam A, Huq M, Nahar S, Chawdhury FA et al. Sexually transmitted infections among brothel-based sex workers in Bangladesh: high prevalence of asymptomatic infection. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32(1):13-9.

Sobel JD, Faro S, Force RW, Foxman B, Ledger WJ, Nyirjesy PR et al. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178(2):203-11.

Sim M, Logan S, Hoon Goh L. Vaginal discharge: evaluation and management in primary care. Singapore Med J. 2020;61(6):297-301.