Classification and pathophysiology of cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19

Surinder Gupta, Nikita Gupta, Nakul Gupta


Cutaneous manifestation of in COVID-19 patients are varied and needs proper categorization and classification. Various morphological manifestation on skin are seen. The pathophysiology of this virus is not well understood because of it being a novel virus. This disease involves all organs of the body, primarily the respiratory system, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen and the skin as well. In addition to pneumonia which is a hall mark feature of this virus, multiorgan failure occurs as a result of its cascading pathological pathways. Another fatal feature of this virus is hyperimmune response (because of IL-6), known as, ‘cytokine storm’. The pathophysiological changes in skin leading to different kinds of rashes range from vasculitis changes to formation of microthrombi obliterating the dermal vessels. After reviewing current literature, we have proposed a simplified classification of cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 is proposed based on morphological features, relation with severity of disease and histopathological changes. Pathophysiology of cutaneous changes is also being described.


Cutaneous manifestations, COVID-19, Classification, Pathophysiology

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